Vocabulary from Reading passage: Attitudes to language

It is not easy to be systematic and objective about language study. Popular linguistic debate regularly deteriorates into invective and polemic. Language belongs to everyone, so most people feel they have a right to hold an opinion about it And when opinions differ, emotions can run high. Arguments can start as easily over minor points of usage as over major policies of linguistic education.

Language, more over  is a very public behavior so it is easy for different usages to be noted and criticized  No part of society or social behavior is exempt: linguistic factors influence how we judge personality, intelligence, social status, educational standards, job aptitude, and many other areas of identity and social survival. As a result, it is easy to hurt, and to be hurt, when language use is unfeelingly attacked.

ln its most general sense. prescriptivism is the view that one variety of language has an inherently higher value than others, and that this ought to be imposed on the whole of the speech community. The view is propounded especially in relation to grammar and vocabulary, and frequently with reference to pronunciation. The variety which is favoured, in this account, is usually a version of the ‘standard’ written language, especially as encountered in literature, or in the formal spoken language which most closely reflects this style. Adherents to this variety are said to speak or write ‘correctly’; deviations from lt are said to be ‘incorrect`.

All the main languages have been studied prescriptively, especially in the 18th-century approach to the writing of grammars and dictionaries. The aims of these early grammarians were threefold: [a) they wanted to codify the principles of their languages, to show that there was a system beneath the apparent chaos of usage. (b] they wanted a means of settling disputes over usage, and (c] they wanted to point out what they felt to be common errors, in order to ‘improve’ the language. The authoritarian nature of the approach is best characterized by its reliance on ‘rules’ of grammar Some usages are prescribed; to be learnt and followed accurately; others are prescribed to be avoided. ln this early period, there were no half-measures: usage was either right or wrong. and it was the task of the grammarian not simply to record alliterative but to pronounce judgement upon them.

These attitudes are still with us, and they motivate a widespread concern that linguistic standards should be maintained. Nevertheless, there is an alternative point of view that is concerned less with standards than with the facts of linguistic usage. This approach ls summarized in the statement that it is the task of the grammarian to describe not prescribe – to record the facts of linguistic diversity, and not to attempt the impossible tasks evaluating language variation or halting language change. In the second half of the 18th century, we already find advocates of this view, such as Joseph Priestley, whose Rudiments of English Grammar (1761) insists that ‘the custom of speaking is the original and only just standard of any language. `Linguistic issues, it is argued, cannot be solved by logic and legislation. And this view has become the tenet of the modem linguistic approach to grammatical analysis.

In our own time, the opposition between ‘descriptivists’ and ‘prescriptivists’ has often become extreme. with both sides painting unreal pictures of the other. Descriptive grammarians have been presented as people who do not care about standards, because of the way they see all forms of usage as equally valid. Prescriptive grammarians have been presented as blind adherents to a historical tradition. The opposition has even been presented in quasi-political terms – of radical liberalism vs elitist conservatism.

    • advocate: verb ;  to publicly  support or suggest  an idea , development t, or way of doing something.
    • Telugu meaning: సమర్ధించు
    • Example from the passage: In the second half of the 18th century, we already find advocates of this view…
    • apparent: adjective ; seeming  to exist  or be true.
    • Telugu meaning: కనబడే , స్పష్టమైన
    • aptitude: noun ; a natural ability or skill
    • Telugu meaning: సామర్ధ్యము, యోగ్యత
    • chaos: noun ; a state  of total confusion  with no order.
    • Telugu meaning: గందరగోళం
    • codify: verb ; to arrange something, such as laws or rules, into a system inherently authoritarian
    • Telugu meaning: నియమము
    • conservatism: noun ; the quality  of not usually liking or trusting  change , especially sudden change.
    • Telugu meaning: సాంప్రదాయవాదం
    • deteriorate: verb ; to  become worse.
    • Telugu meaning: క్షీణించడం
    • deviation: noun ; the action  of doing something that is different from the usual  or common way of behaving.
    • Telugu meaning: క్రమం తప్పడం
    • elitist: adjective ;oraganized for the good of a few people who have special  interests or abilities.
    • Telugu meaning: ఉన్నతుడు
    • exempt: verb ; to excuse  someone or something from a duty, payment , etc.,
    • Telugu meaning: మినహాయింపు.
    • grammarian: noun; a person  who studies grammar and usually writes books about it.
    • Telugu meaning: వ్యాకరణవేత్త
    • halting: adjective; stopping  often while you are saying or doing something, especially  because you are nervous.
    • Telugu meaning: అడ్డుకుంటున్నాయని
    • imposed: verb ;  to force  someone to accept something, especially  a belief or way of living.
    • Telugu meaning: విధించు, భారం వేయు.
    • insist: verb ; to say firmly  or demand forcefully , especially  when others disagree with or oppose  what you say.
    • Telugu meaning: పట్టుబట్టు
    • invective: noun ;criticism  that is very forceful, unkind, and often rude.
    • Telugu meaning: దూషణతో కూడిన దాడి, నింద
    • legislation: noun ;  a law or set of laws suggested  by a government t and made official by a parliament.
    • Telugu meaning: చట్టము లేదా శాసనము
    • liberalism: noun; an attitude  of respecting  and allowing many different types of beliefs or behaviour.
    • Telugu meaning: ఉదారవాదం
    • linguistic: adjective; connected with language or the study of language.
    • Telugu meaning: భాషకి సంబంధించిన
    • point of view: noun ;  a way of considering  something, an opinion.
    • Telugu meaning: దృష్టికోణం, వైఖరి
    • polemic: noun ; a piece  of writing or a speech  in which a person attacks or defends  a particular opinion, person, idea , or set of beliefs.
    • Telugu meaning: వాదన
    • prescriptive: adjective; tending to say what someone should do or how something should be done.
    • Telugu meaning: ఆజ్ఞాపించు, విధించు
    • propound: verb ; to suggest a theory , belief , or opinion  for other people to consider.
    • Telugu meaning: ప్రతిపాదించు
    • radical: adjective ;  believing  or expressing  the belief that there should be great or extreme  social or political change
    • Telugu meaning: పునాదియైన, ప్రాతిపాదిక
    • tenet: noun ; one of the principles  on which a belief or theory is based.
    • Telugu meaning: సిద్ధాంతము
    • valid: adjective ;  based  on truth  or reason ; able  to be accepted.
    • Telugu meaning: చెల్లుబాటు అయ్యే
    • widespread: adjective ;  existing  or happening  in many places  and/or among many people.
    • Telugu meaning: విస్తృత  లేదా విశాలమయిన

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